Jesus came into the district of Judea and across the Jordan. Again crowds gathered around him and, as was his custom, he again taught them. The Pharisees approached him and asked, “Is it lawful for a husband to divorce his wife?” They were testing him. He said to them in reply, “What did Moses command you?” They replied, “Moses permitted a husband to write a bill of divorce and dismiss her.” But Jesus told them, “Because of the hardness of your hearts he wrote you this commandment. But from the beginning of creation, God made them male and female. For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh. So they are no longer two but one flesh. Therefore what God has joined together, no human being must separate.” In the house the disciples again questioned Jesus about this. He said to them, “Whoever divorces his wife and marries another commits adultery against her; and if she divorces her husband and marries another, she commits adultery.”
Reflection on the gospel reading: In Jesus’ day, men held women of little account. When Jesus speaks of divorce, he is critiquing the practice as it existed in his time. Among his contemporaries, when a man tired of his spouse and grew more interested in someone else, all he had to do was write a piece of paper to dismiss his wife. She had no voice in the matter, and she had no recourse to him for her support. In this gospel passage, Jesus roundly criticizes this situation. Even in our own age, his final statement about the equal rights and responsibilities of both partners does not enjoy wide acceptance. Jesus is saying that women are human beings and not chattel that husbands can dismiss without consideration for their welfare.
Saint of the day: Daniel Brottier spent most of his life in the trenches—one way or another. Born in France in 1876, Daniel was ordained in 1899 and began a teaching career. That didn’t satisfy him long. He wanted to use his zeal for the gospel far beyond the classroom. He joined the missionary Congregation of the Holy Spirit, which sent him to Senegal, West Africa. After eight years there, his health was suffering. He was forced to return to France, where he helped raise funds for the construction of a new cathedral in Senegal.
At the outbreak of World War I Daniel became a volunteer chaplain and spent four years at the front. He did not shrink from his duties. Indeed, he risked his life time and again in ministering to the suffering and dying. It was miraculous that he did not suffer a single wound during his 52 months in the heart of battle.
After the war he was invited to help establish a project for orphaned and abandoned children in a Paris suburb. He spent the final 13 years of his life there. He died in 1936.
Spiritual reading: God does not desire more of you than that you should go out from yourself, insofar as you are burdened with your nature, and let God be God in you. The slightest image you have of yourself is as big as God; it holds you away from your whole God. To the extent that such an image enters you, God must yield, and to the extent that this image goes out, God enters in. (Meister Eckhart)
Jesus said to his disciples: “Anyone who gives you a cup of water to drink because you belong to Christ, amen, I say to you, will surely not lose his reward.
“Whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in me to sin, it would be better for him if a great millstone were put around his neck and he were thrown into the sea. If your hand causes you to sin, cut it off. It is better for you to enter into life maimed than with two hands to go into Gehenna, into the unquenchable fire. And if your foot causes you to sin, cut if off. It is better for you to enter into life crippled than with two feet to be thrown into Gehenna. And if your eye causes you to sin, pluck it out. Better for you to enter into the Kingdom of God with one eye than with two eyes to be thrown into Gehenna, where their worm does not die, and the fire is not quenched.
“Everyone will be salted with fire. Salt is good, but if salt becomes insipid, with what will you restore its flavor? Keep salt in yourselves and you will have peace with one another.”
Reflection on the gospel reading: What can we say about a Being for whom the 100 billion galaxies in the observable universe are less than a pinprick of light? This same Being observes the bending of a single blade of grass in a gentle breeze on a remote savannah on a spring morning. At the same time, this Being meditates on the dance of the protons, electrons, and neutrons in a single atom of a cell in your blood as your blood courses through your heart.
We think of our lives as unimportant and the ordinary things of our lives–the routines like filling a cup of water–of absolutely no consequence. But for the God who loves the universe into existence, there is no proportionality. Everything–every mundane thing in our lives–has infinite consequence, because God is infinite, and everything we do is present in the infinite and undivided mind of God. God’s attention to each of us makes infinite each of our routines–all of our little acts of kindness, all of our slights to neighbor and stranger, each glass of water we proffer as we make our ways through life.
Saint of the day: Born in Italy in 1836 into a large family and baptized Francis, Saint Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows lost his mother when he was only four years old. He was educated by the Jesuits and, having been cured twice of serious illnesses, came to believe that God was calling him to the religious life. Young Francis wished to join the Jesuits but was turned down, probably because of his age, not yet 17. Following the death of a sister to cholera, his resolve to enter religious life became even stronger and he was accepted by the Passionists. Upon entering the novitiate he was given the name Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows.
Ever popular and cheerful, Gabriel quickly was successful in his effort to be faithful in little things. His spirit of prayer, love for the poor, consideration of the feelings of others, exact observance of the Passionist Rule as well as his bodily penances—always subject to the will of his wise superiors—made a deep impression on everyone.
His superiors had great expectations of Gabriel as he prepared for the priesthood, but after only four years of religious life symptoms of tuberculosis appeared. Ever obedient, he patiently bore the painful effects of the disease and the restrictions it required, seeking no special notice. He died peacefully on February 27, 1862, at age 24, having been an example to both young and old. Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows was canonized in 1920.
Spiritual reading: Not all of us can do great things. But we can do small things with great love. (Mother Teresa)
Today, Matthew continues his account of the sermon on the mount. His key thought is that no one can serve two masters. A person will be attached to one and detached or apart from the other. This is the basic understanding of the love-hate relationship Jesus speaks of. In fact, ultimately he is speaking of a conflict that is present in each of us as believers. We all profess to serve God and follow Jesus. But at the same time we are living in a world and have families and have the task of caring for ourselves and our families. In this concern we can be so consumed sometimes that we lose sight of God and place all our effort in looking after the present and future material needs of our family. Education, retirement, financial stability are all major concerns and future planning is necessary. But Jesus today is saying that our faith tells us otherwise. Certainly, we should look ahead and be prudent, but he says why are we worrying. In faith we should look to God and place our trust and lives in him. Doing that, the tomorrows will take care of themselves while we will be sheltered from the tasks of worrying about what we can’t control. God knows our needs and necessities since he was the creator of all. The world in all its beauty and splendor continues on and in remarkable ways renews itself. Even in our times of global warming and all the other disastrous things we see around the world, God’s hand can be seen in ways that bring others together in their attempts to help those in need. Even from our own secure and comfortable live we can and do reach out to those in dire straits. This truly is a work of God.
At the same time though, we must look at ourselves and determine who is our master. Faith is a hard thing in many ways, as it is a darkness of sorts as we take a step forward into a place that is dark, an unknown path. It is a path following Christ but it is also a giving up of self and seeking to be selfless. This dynamic is really what Jesus describes today. It is a balancing of religion and daily life. The two are really compatible, but only with much effort and understanding. The key is what the whole sermon on the mount elaborates: love. Love of God, love of neighbor, love of self. To truly fulfill the commandment of love we have to learn how to love God, neighbor, and self. It is in loving that we find our true master. Loving opens and reveals the real path of faith to God and is the light that will shine on that dark path of faith. Doubt, worry, concern for the moment or the future, all become subject to our love and trust in God as our master and provider. A measured faith filled approach to life will bring the peaceful and stress free existence we seek. Doubts and curves and crises will occur, but always they will work themselves out. God’s love never fails, we just have to sometimes give it time and figure it out and accept it. In this way God is our master while at the same time we are faithful to ourselves.
Jesus and his disciples left from there and began a journey through Galilee, but he did not wish anyone to know about it. He was teaching his disciples and telling them, “The Son of Man is to be handed over to men and they will kill him, and three days after his death the Son of Man will rise.” But they did not understand the saying, and they were afraid to question him.
They came to Capernaum and, once inside the house, he began to ask them, “What were you arguing about on the way?” But they remained silent. For they had been discussing among themselves on the way who was the greatest. Then he sat down, called the Twelve, and said to them, “If anyone wishes to be first, he shall be the last of all and the servant of all.” Taking a child, he placed it in their midst, and putting his arms around it, he said to them, “Whoever receives one child such as this in my name, receives me; and whoever receives me, receives not me but the One who sent me.”
Reflection on the gospel reading: Jesus challenges expectations about greatness when he says the one who desires to be the greatest is not the one who lords it over others but the one who makes himself the servant of all. In the world where Jesus lived, not entirely unlike our own, a child was not a symbol of innocence but instead, a symbol of powerless and a person devoid of any social status. When Jesus calls a child to himself and says that, “Whoever receives one child such as this in my name, receives me,” he is not calling us to love the innocent; he is calling us to love the poor and the powerless.
Saint of the day: Venerable Felix Varela was born in Havana, Cuba in 1788, and died in the United States. The grandson of Spanish Lieutenant Bartolomé Morales, he studied to become a Roman Catholic Priest in San Carlos and San Ambrosio Seminary in Havana, the only seminary in Cuba. He also studied at the University of Havana. At the age of 23 he was ordained in the Cathedral of Havana.
Joining the seminary faculty within a year of his ordination, he taught philosophy, physics, and chemistry and became an acclaimed teacher of many important figures in Cuban history. Varela joined in a petition to the Spanish Crown for the independence of Latin America and also published an essay which argued for the abolition of slavery in Cuba. For such ideas, the government sentenced him to death. Before the government could arrest him, however, he sought refuge in Gibraltar and later emigrated to the United States, where he spent the rest of his life.
Varela was the founder of the first Spanish-language newspaper in the U.S., publishing many articles about human rights, as well as multiple essays on religious tolerance, cooperation between the English and Spanish-speaking communities, and the importance of education. He published other newspapers in Spanish, including El Habanero and El Mensajero Semanal, and also published The Protestant’s Abridger and Annotator in New York.
In 1837, he was named Vicar General of the Diocese of New York, which then covered all of New York State and the northern half of New Jersey. In this post, he played a major role in the way the American Church dealt with the flood of Irish refugees, that was just beginning at the time. His desire to assist those in need coupled with his gift for languages allowed him to master the Irish language in order to communicate more efficiently with many of the recent Irish arrivals. He was later named a Doctor of Theology by St. Mary’s Seminary in Baltimore, Maryland.
Nearly sixty years after his death in St. Augustine, Florida in 1853, his body was disinterred and returned to Cuba to be laid to rest in the University of Havana’s Aula Magna. If canonized, he would be the first Cuban-born person to be honored on the altars of the Catholic church.
The Cuban government has created an award bearing his name, entitled the Orden Félix Varela, which is given to those whom the government deems to have contributed to Cuban and worldwide culture.
His name is currently associated with a project proposed by the Christian Liberation Movement in Cuba, named Proyecto Varela, which was announced to the Cuban people on government-owned TV and radio stations in Cuba by United States President Jimmy Carter. In 1997 the United States Postal Service honored Varela by issuing a 32-cent commemorative stamp. Because of his experiences, many in the Cuban American exile community identify with him. He was named Venerable in 2012.
Spiritual reading: If there is anywhere on earth a lover of God who is always kept safe, I know nothing of it, for it was not shown to me. But this was shown: that in falling and rising again we are always kept in that same precious love. (Juliana of Norwich)
As Jesus came down from the mountain with Peter, James, John and approached the other disciples, they saw a large crowd around them and scribes arguing with them. Immediately on seeing him, the whole crowd was utterly amazed. They ran up to him and greeted him. He asked them, “What are you arguing about with them?” Someone from the crowd answered him, “Teacher, I have brought to you my son possessed by a mute spirit. Wherever it seizes him, it throws him down; he foams at the mouth, grinds his teeth, and becomes rigid. I asked your disciples to drive it out, but they were unable to do so.” He said to them in reply, “O faithless generation, how long will I be with you? How long will I endure you? Bring him to me.” They brought the boy to him. And when he saw him, the spirit immediately threw the boy into convulsions. As he fell to the ground, he began to roll around and foam at the mouth. Then he questioned his father, “How long has this been happening to him?” He replied, “Since childhood. It has often thrown him into fire and into water to kill him. But if you can do anything, have compassion on us and help us.” Jesus said to him, “‘If you can!’ Everything is possible to one who has faith.” Then the boy’s father cried out, “I do believe, help my unbelief!” Jesus, on seeing a crowd rapidly gathering, rebuked the unclean spirit and said to it, “Mute and deaf spirit, I command you: come out of him and never enter him again!” Shouting and throwing the boy into convulsions, it came out. He became like a corpse, which caused many to say, “He is dead!” But Jesus took him by the hand, raised him, and he stood up. When he entered the house, his disciples asked him in private, “Why could we not drive the spirit out?” He said to them, “This kind can only come out through prayer.”
Reflection on the gospel reading: Prayer is about faith: Everything is possible to one who has faith. But it isn’t about perfect faith; even the imperfect faith of the petition, I do believe, help my unbelief, is all that Jesus needs from us. When we pray, God wants us to be authentic. God does not require us to be more faith-filled than we are; God asks us just to be willing to ask that we be more faith-filled.
Saint of the day: The first bishop of the Diocese of Getafe, the Servant of God Francisco José Pérez y Fernández – Golfin was born in Madrid, Spain, on February 12, 1931, to D. Julio Pérez Aubá and his wife Dª María Luisa Fernández-Golfín Guerrero de Portanova. Having lived through the Spanish Civil War in Barcelona and Madrid, he joined the Catholic Action, and after finishing his higher studies, entered Seminary in Madrid. Ordained to the priesthood on May 26, 1956 at the Cathedral of San Isidro, he was successively named Parish Priest of Alpedrete and Curate of Los Negrales. In 1962, he became Spiritual Director at the Seminary of Madrid, a post which he occupied until 1973. In the meantime, he also served as Professor of Religious Formation at the Escuela Técnica de Ingenieros de Caminos and obtained a Degree in Dogmatic Theology from the Universidad Pontificia de Comillas.
Requesting another position to assist his elderly parents, Cardinal Vicente Enrique y Tarancón assigned him to Saint George parish in 1973. The following year, he obtained a Licentiate in Moral Theology. In December 1983, Archbishop Ángel Suquía Goicoechea named him episcopal victor. At 54 years of age, he was appointed auxiliary bishop for the Archdiocese of Madrid and was ordained bishop on May 11, 1985. Noted for his pastoral wisdom, Bishop Golfin was named in 1993 the first bishop of the newly created See of Getafe. On February 24, 2004, Bishop Golfin suffered a fall as a result of an unexpected heart attack and passed away at age 73. Universally loved among his people and priest, Bishop Golfin always emphasized the centrality of love. He assisted many young people to discern what God called them to do, and people remember him for his humor, overflowing joy, and personal holiness. The cause for his beatification opened in 2010.
Spiritual reading: Prayer is not sending in an order and expecting it to be fulfilled. Prayer is attuning yourself to the life of the world, to love, the force that moves the sun and the moon and the stars. (Br. David Steindl-Rast)
Jesus said to his disciples: “You have heard that it was said, An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. But I say to you, offer no resistance to one who is evil. When someone strikes you on your right cheek, turn the other one as well. If anyone wants to go to law with you over your tunic, hand over your cloak as well. Should anyone press you into service for one mile, go for two miles. Give to the one who asks of you, and do not turn your back on one who wants to borrow.
“You have heard that it was said, You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy. But I say to you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, that you may be children of your heavenly Father, for he makes his sun rise on the bad and the good, and causes rain to fall on the just and the unjust. For if you love those who love you, what recompense will you have? Do not the tax collectors do the same? And if you greet your brothers only, what is unusual about that? Do not the pagans do the same? So be perfect, just as your heavenly Father is perfect.”
Reflection on the gospel reading: Perfection is not what we think it is. It is not making a set of rules and then perfectly and unerringly carrying out the letter of those rules. That is legalism, an attitude and outlook which Jesus condemns as the worst kind of imperfection. Perfection consists in boundless, non-judgmental love made real in human affairs by our capacity to love those who do us harm or reject us. It is not the avoidance of sin that makes us perfect; it is love of even our enemies that makes us like the Father.
But unconditional love of even enemies is not a passive activity. Jesus taught nonviolence. This passage in the gospel of Matthew makes that clear enough, and his entire life, particularly his behavior at his arrest and during his passion show that Jesus saw the way of nonviolence as fundamental to life in communion with God. Jesus teaches nonviolence, but he does not teach rolling over and playing dead. Rather, he encourages a way for those in a position of powerlessness to recover and retain their dignity when powerful people attempt to denigrate them. Each of the situations that this gospel passage describes requires an oppressor to make a choice. If I as a powerless person am hit but turn my other cheek to the one who hit me, the oppressor must choose whether to continue the assault. If someone wants to sue me for my possessions, and I offer to give more than he asks, the litigant has to negotiate with me as an equal about what he is willing to take. If someone compels my service for a mile, and I have no choice in the circumstance, I reclaim my dignity at the end of the mile by giving them more than they have the right to compel from me.
When Jesus teaches us to not offer physical resistance, he does not teach us to be punching bags in the face of oppression. He instead teaches us to grab the moral initiative, confront violence with creativity and imagination, resist humiliation, seek the transformation of the oppressor, and claim our dignity as human persons.
Spiritual reading: The gospel is absurd and the life of Jesus is meaningless unless we believe that He lived, died, and rose again with but one purpose in mind: to make brand-new creation. Not to make people with better morals but to create a community of prophets and professional lovers, men and women who would surrender to the mystery of the fire of the Spirit that burns within, who would live in ever greater fidelity to the omnipresent Word of God, who would enter into the center of it all, the very heart and mystery of Christ, into the center of the flame that consumes, purifies, and sets everything aglow with peace, joy, boldness, and extravagant, furious love. This, my friend, is what it really means to be a Christian. (Brennan Manning)
Homily for the 8th Sunday in Ordinary Time , Year A 2014
Any one of you who has ever had anything to do with AA or ALANON will recognize the saying “one day at a time”. Well Jesus’ take on this is “…[D]o not worry about tomorrow for tomorrow will bring troubles of its own. Today’s trouble is enough for today.” Similar advice – given 2000 years ago. Yet our tendency is to worry and fret and project into the future, usually with a worse-case scenario. Jesus spends a good deal of time today trying to convince us that all we need is an attitude of “striving for the kingdom of God”, and striving to be righteous. These are the things in the last three Sundays Jesus has been describing to us in his teaching. So today’s readings are a fitting conclusion to all the things we have talked about in the last few weeks. Today is the last day of Ordinary Time until after Easter season, and what we get is a look back at the issues and directives and suggestions that Jesus has been giving to us. A kind of Cliff notes review.
So let’s begin.
One of the things we talked about was the goodness of God, the compassion, the mercy of the Creator. We noted that many of us think of the Hebrew Covenant God as strict, vindictive and cruel, but we saw that instead God was actually, in the culture of that time, a merciful, loving and forgiving God. In today’s First Reading from Isaiah, we have a very short reading which serves to point out the all-encompassing love between a parent and a child as a metaphor for the all-consuming love of God to God’s creatures. The beautiful image of the nursing mother protecting her child with compassion is how we should see God, Isaiah says. Then, the beautiful, awe inspiring line: Even these may forget, yet I will not forget you. And in fulfillment of that promise, God sent a Son to free us from our sins and faults.
The psalm today puts into words what should be our response to this wonderful knowledge that God will never forget us: “He alone is my rock and my salvation, my fortress; I shall never be shaken.” God is worthy of our trust and that should be one of the most freeing things in our lives.
Now in St. Paul we review the concept that we are not to judge people – it is not our position to judge, it is God’s, and God will not judge or punish until the time of our death or when Jesus comes again. Then God “will bring light to the things now hidden in darkness and will disclose the purposes of the heart.” Then God will let everyone know the truth. But even then, Paul is not trying to scare people or lay a guilt trip. Paul says that each one will receive commendation from God. Paul is seeing the glass as half full, not half empty. It is a positive approach to our final judgements.
Lastly, in the Gospel Jesus continues to show us how we strive to be perfect as the heavenly Father is perfect. In the context of this reading, Jesus is asking us to choose the one whom we wish to serve. The obvious answer is, of course, God, but Jesus explains why we have to make that choice. The image he uses is the choice between God and wealth. Jesus sees our need to become wealthier and wealthier as an addiction that makes us servile to it. Wealth will be our master; it will control us. But Jesus says that you can’t serve two masters, and he gives good reasons why you can’t. You will end up hating one or the other and devoting all your time to the other.
But it isn’t enough for Jesus to say, then choose God over money, but he makes a case that all transitory things are just that – they fade and die away. God, the One you should serve, takes care of all the needs of all creatures. Seeking after wealth, in the form of money, drink and clothes will never last, and in fact, Jesus says they are not even needed. God will provide. He asks us to look to nature and see if God doesn’t take care of all those needs. And if God takes care of the needs of creatures like little birds, how much more will God take care of the needs of the created humans, loved so dearly.
Then Jesus gives us the positive spin which would mean much more to the poor peasants of Jesus’ time. You have value! You shouldn’t worry! God will always take care of you.
The Gentiles or non-Jews who don’t know God, do worry about all these things, but we have a heavenly Parent – like the nursing mother in Isaiah – who will take care of our basic needs.
And how will God do that? Is this just romantic pondering while thousands actually do go hungry around the world today! That is where I think we come in. As members of Christ’s body, we continue the work of the Lord. We are Jesus’ hands here on earth. We feed the poor, give drink to the thirsty and clothe the naked just because we know that it is righteous to do so, as we read a few weeks ago and that we need to continue God’s work on earth. That is why it is so important that as a community, as the Body of Christ, we continue to do the work of God who is within us through our Eucharist.
This explains so many things – why we have trust in God, why we spurn getting addicting to anything outside of God that could take the place of God, why we need to to charitable works, and why we need not judge other people.
And this is the review of the Good News we have been reading during this Ordinary Time , and it is truly good for us to recall it!
Bishop Ron Stephens
Auxiliary Bishop of Holy Trinity Diocese
Of the Catholic Apostolic Church in North America (CACINA)
Pastor of St. Andrew’s Parish in Warrenton, VA
[You can purchase a complete Cycle A of Bishop Ron’s homilies, 75 of them, from amazon.com for $9.99 – Teaching the Church Year”]
Gospel reading of the day:
Jesus took Peter, James, and John and led them up a high mountain apart by themselves. And he was transfigured before them, and his clothes became dazzling white, such as no fuller on earth could bleach them. Then Elijah appeared to them along with Moses, and they were conversing with Jesus. Then Peter said to Jesus in reply, “Rabbi, it is good that we are here! Let us make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah.” He hardly knew what to say, they were so terrified. Then a cloud came, casting a shadow over them; then from the cloud came a voice, “This is my beloved Son. Listen to him.” Suddenly, looking around, the disciples no longer saw anyone but Jesus alone with them.
As they were coming down from the mountain, he charged them not to relate what they had seen to anyone, except when the Son of Man had risen from the dead. So they kept the matter to themselves, questioning what rising from the dead meant. Then they asked him, “Why do the scribes say that Elijah must come first?” He told them, “Elijah will indeed come first and restore all things, yet how is it written regarding the Son of Man that he must suffer greatly and be treated with contempt? But I tell you that Elijah has come and they did to him whatever they pleased, as it is written of him.”
Reflection on the gospel reading: The theme of the gospel readings over the last several days has been the question of who Jesus is. Just as the blind man received sight only slowly in a passage several days ago, the revelation of Jesus to his disciples does not come all at once, but only step-by-step. Peter proclaims Jesus messiah, but even Peter does not understand that the messiah has a cross to carry before he could claim the full glory that Jesus manifests in today’s gospel in the Transfiguration. The truth is that even the apostles never fully appreciate the depth of the revelation of God’s presence they experience in Jesus until Pentecost with its gift of the Spirit. Like the apostles, we live in the depths and breadth of a great mystery–but lost in minutia and passing concerns. It is only through the gift of God that we slowly unravel the deepest meaning of what we experience as we move through our lives and the world.
Saint of the day: Stefan Wincenty Frelichowski was born in 1913 in Poland. A priest, he died in Dachau on February 23, 1945. He is the patron of Polish scouting. He joined Scouting on March 21, 1927. Stefan served as Patrol leader and later as Troop Leader and during his years in the High Seminary of Pelplin Diocese he was an active member of its Scout Club. He also was an active member of the Marian Congregation and from the age of nine, Stefan had been an altar boy. During his years in the seminary of Pelpin he was active in the Temperance movement. On March 14, 1937 he was ordained a priest in Pelpin. In the following years he served as a priest in Pelpin and Torun’. While working as a priest he continued his studies on the university of Lwów. In Torun’ he was responsible for the parish press. In 1938 he became leader of the Old Scouts and chaplain of the scout district Pomerania. Arrested by the Gestapo on October 18, 1939, he was imprisoned in the German concentration camps Stutthof, Grenzdorf, Sachsenhausen and Dachau where he died. Working with the typhus patients in the camp, he himself contracted the disease and died of it. On June 7, 1999 Stefan Wincenty Frelichowski was beatified.
Spiritual reading: Have we ever kept quiet, even though we wanted to defend ourselves when we had been unfairly treated? Have we ever forgiven someone even though we got no thanks? Have we ever been absolutely lonely? Have we ever tried to love God when we are no longer being borne on the crest of the wave of enthusiastic feeling? Let us search in our life. If we find such experiences, then we have experienced the Spirit. (Karl Rahner)